Daniel 11 has the potential to be very helpful in helping us understand much of what will happen in the Middle East during the Fourth Signpost and Tribulation.
The question has been which parts of Daniel 11 were fulfilled in ancient times, and which parts apply to being fulfilled soon, in the end times? As you may know, if you read Daniel Revisited, Daniel 11 was mostly ignored, but it is very much a part of the new book.
My new book, using the ancient method of reading that was lost and found, I believe, has solved the question of Daniel 11 and it’s a bit of a surprise. I cannot show right now how this method arrives at what I reveal in these posts—that’s in the book—and I’ll show it later, but here I will show the result. The book will show how to use this reading method, the guidelines, and application to all of Daniel, Revelation, and other books.
The result for Daniel 11 from this new reading points to the following:
- Daniel 11:1–30 was fulfilled in ancient times,
- Daniel 11:30–35 was fulfilled in ancient times AND is to be fulfilled again in the end times,
- Daniel 11:36–45 will be fulfilled in the end times.
First, upon discovering this, I was struck by the amazing idea that Daniel 11:30–35 will be fulfilled exactly twice. It’s not a fore shadow and a fulfillment. It’s not an after shadow and a fulfillment. No, it is to be fulfilled exactly twice. Everything stated in those verses already happened under Antiochus IV, and will again under Antichrist.
I’m not aware of any other Scripture passage being fulfilled twice. A lot of people have been arguing whether Daniel 11:30–35 applies to Antiochus or the Antichrist. Well, it’s both, and this should be helpful in resolving that argument. The reading method itself reveals this double fulfillment from its consistent set of guidelines used from Bible book to Bible book. The method has revealed many amazing things in many chapters, but in Daniel 11 this is the finding.
Second, Daniel 11:21–30 may have been questioned by some whether it has an ancient or modern fulfillment, but this reading method forced me to think of Daniel 11:21–30 as being fulfilled in ancient times. Before this, I hadn’t formulated an opinion. But not anymore. And after realizing I had to dig deeper into documented history, and actually found the historical documentation, I am now convinced these ten verses are fulfilled in ancient times.
Documented History as Proof
Though the reading method itself provides a form of “proof,” additional proof must include the historically documented facts. Showing the history of the fulfillment of Daniel 11:1–20 is easy: even Wikipedia articles will have that. What is more subtle is the documented history of the fulfillment of Daniel 11:21–30 and 30–35, which required more digging.
And in turn with historical facts, a proof does not need to include the result of the reading method, though it does show the wonder and self-explaining structure of Scripture. No, the proof is sufficient just by showing the detailed fulfillment in history of Daniel 11:21–30 as it is for Daniel 11:2–20.
An Additional Proof
However, we can show one additional argument from Daniel 11 and possible fulfillment: Daniel 11:30 vs. Daniel 11:44. Both verses tell us of the latter part of each man’s military career. Verse 30 is Antiochus IV; verse 44 is the Antichrist. Verse 30 says, “Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart.” Verse 44 says, “But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many.” Verse 30 shows a man discouraged. Verse 44 shows a man enraged and instead of being defeated, fighting back.
Now, Daniel 11:36 says, “The king will do as he pleases,” and Daniel 8:12 says, “It prospered in everything it did.” Both verses speak of the Antichrist. Which of the two verses in Daniel 11—verse 30 and verse 44—is a match to Daniel 8:12 and 11:36? It looks like 11:44 to me is the match. It’s like that song on the children’s show—one of these things just doesn’t belong. Daniel 8:12, 11:36, and 11:44 all speak of a successful fighting leader. Daniel 11:30 doesn’t match since it is of a leader that is defeated and can’t do what he wants.
Appendix B From the New Book
What follows is a reprint of Appendix B from the new book. It contains detail showing how history already fulfilled Daniel 11:2–35. All this detail will only be in the Appendix for the flow of the book is the reading method and the things it finds. Further proof by historical details I felt interrupted the flow of the book but still needed to be shown.
Appendix B will be shown in three parts, with the first part included here.
(Note of book status: Editing of Sections 3 and 4 is complete as of this week. The main focus switches to finish the writing of Section 5, the last section.)
The Ancient Fulfillment of Daniel 11:2–35 and Timeline of the Syrian Wars Between the Seleucids and the Ptolemies
This Appendix presents the documented historical events recorded by ancient sources that fulfill Daniel 11:2–35. The reader can refer to Figure B-1 below to provide a framework for the myriad of events which occurred over a century and a half, and were documented by ancient historians such as Polybius and Josephus. Polybius was a Greek who watched and recorded Rome slowly conquering his beloved Greece. Josephus was a Jew who recorded Greece and Rome subduing his beloved Judah.
The timeline of fulfillment of Daniel 11:2–35 extends from the time of Alexander the Great and his Macedonian Empire around 323 BC to just after the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes which ended in 163 BC. For the remainder of this Appendix, the Bible will be quoted in the NKJV. My explanation of how each verse was fulfilled follows, with references. References are shown starting with Daniel 11:14. The history prior to Daniel 11:14 is commonly documented. References in the text use an abbreviated form citing sources, with sources fully listed at the end of this Appendix.
For brevity’s sake, in my explanation of the Bible text, I abbreviate the king of the north as KotN, and the king of the south, as KotS.
The Wars of Persia and Macedonia, Daniel 11:2–4
And now I will tell you the truth: Behold, three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth shall be far richer than them all; by his strength, through his riches, he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece.
The revelation contained in Daniel 11 begins with Daniel 10:1, where it is stated this vision occurs “in the third year of Cyrus king of Persia.” Therefore, the next three kings following Cyrus are Cambyses, son of Cyrus, who ruled 530–522 BC, Bardiya, another son of Cyrus (or claimed to be), who ruled in 522 BC, and Darius I who ruled from 522–486 BC. This is the same Darius mentioned in the books of Haggai, Zechariah, Ezra, and Nehemiah.
The fourth king was Xerxes I, son of Darius I, and he ruled from 485-465 BC. He summoned up his empire’s forces to attack the Greek city states. The famous Battle of Thermopylae occurred during this time. Xerxes I, also called Ahasuerus in the Bible, was husband to Queen Esther.
Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
The mighty king is Alexander the Great, son of Phillip II, king of Macedonia. He conquered the Persian Empire all the way to India.
And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken up and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not among his posterity nor according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.
Alexander died in 323 BC in Babylon, after having just finished the conquest of the Persian Empire. The only heir he had was an infant son back in Macedonia. His empire was divided up in 323 BC by twenty-five kings, satraps, and generals, by a treaty known as the Partition of Babylon.
Note: Daniel 11:4 does not say Alexander’s kingdom was divided into four kingdoms as Dan. 8:8 does. If Dan. 11:4 did say it was four kingdoms we might need to better explain why the division of Alexander’s empire fulfilled this verse. However, no number is given.
The Emergence of the KotN and KotS, Daniel 11:5
Also the king of the South shall become strong, as well as one of his princes; and he shall gain power over him and have dominion. His dominion shall be a great dominion.
Verse 5 spans forty-two years from 323 BC to 281 BC, the year Seleucus died. The KotS (i.e., Ptolemy I), one of the twenty-five satraps, founded a new dynasty in Egypt in 323 BC, and made Egypt stable and strong. In 306 BC, Seleucus, who was Ptolemy’s general and admiral, went on to rule his own empire in Babylon and Syria, founding his dynasty as Seleucus I. Seleucus was also named as one of the twenty-five, being assigned Babylon.
There was almost constant warfare between most of the twenty-five. However, Seleucus and Ptolemy were lifelong friends.
The Battle of Ipsus in 302 BC, and shown in Figure B-1, narrowed down the number of remaining kingdoms. Among the terms of the treaty ending this battle, Seleucus was given the Levant, i.e. Syria and Israel. However, Seleucus let Ptolemy keep it as payment for Ptolemy helping Seleucus take Babylon. Seleucus’ descendants didn’t agree with this, and wanted the Levant back. This was the reason for six wars having been fought with Egypt over 150 years.
The First, Second, and Third Syrian Wars, Daniel 11:6–8
And at the end of some years they shall join forces, for the daughter of the king of the South shall go to the king of the North to make an agreement; but she shall not retain the power of her authority, and neither he nor his authority shall stand; but she shall be given up, with those who brought her, and with him who begot her, and with him who strengthened her in those times.
“Some years” in verse 6 were the twenty-eight years stretching from 281 BC to 253 BC. During those years, the First and Second Syrian Wars were fought between Syria and Egypt. In 253 BC, the KotS (now Ptolemy II Philadelphus, son of Ptolemy I) sent his daughter, Berenice, to be the wife of the KotN (now Antiochus II, grandson of Seleucus I) to create an alliance and put an end to the animosity over those twenty-eight years.
(On a side note, it is this Ptolemy II, the king of the South, who commissioned the creation of the Septuagint.)
Antiochus II had to divorce his first wife, Laodice, to marry Berenice. Indeed the peace did not last as this verse says. Laodice took vengeance by killing Antiochus II (in 246 BC) and then killing Berenice and her new son shortly after. Seleucus II, son of Antiochus II and Laodice, succeeded Antiochus II as KotN in 246 BC.
[V. 7] But from a branch of her roots one shall arise in his place, who shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the North, and deal with them and prevail.
[V. 8] And he shall also carry their gods captive to Egypt, with their princes and their precious articles of silver and gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the North.
V. 7: The same year Antiochus II was murdered, Ptolemy II, Berenice’s father, passed away. He was succeeded by his son, Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III, a branch from Berenice’s roots, who became king of Egypt. Ptolemy III then attacked the kingdom of the KotN (Seleucus II, son of Antiochus II) to avenge his sister’s death, in what became the Third Syrian War (236–231 BC).
V. 8: Ptolemy III was so successful in his campaign, he occupied both capitals at Antioch and Babylon and carried away much plunder. Ptolemy III reigned until his death in 222 BC, three years longer than that of Seleucus II.
To be continued next in Part 2 of 3.
Categories: Announcements, Signpost #4: New Islamic Empire, Signpost Theology
Looking forward to reading the new book. I really appreciate your devotion to research and study which are evidently mixed with prayer (“seek and you will find, knock and it will be opened…”). By the way, I was wondering if you could recommend any written resource and insight (from yourself or whomever) on Daniel 8;25… a verse that’s intrigued me for years.
The arguments in “Daniel Revisited” relied on the Bible, with only a few excursions into secular history. It appears that this new book, while still relying on the Bible, must make longer excursions into secular history.
I am prepared for whatever is quoted from Josephus, whose writings I was content to be ignorant of until recently. What prompted me to read “The Jewish War” in the 2017 Martin Hammond translation was controversy over whether the Temple that Jesus prophesied would be completely destroyed without a single stone left on another (Matthew 24:1-2) was literally fulfilled or not. Martin Goodman, who wrote the notes for Martin Hammond’s translation, stated: “Much of the Herodian masonry around the Temple enclosure in fact remains intact and forms the base of the present wall around the Temple Mount (Haram es-Sherif).” Yet “The Jewish War,” at 7:1-3 and 7:379, proves that the entire Temple complex was completely demolished exactly as Jesus had prophesied.
In his 2014 book “Temple,” Robert Cornuke estimates that about 10,000 stones of the walls around what is falsely called the Temple Mount remain as remnants of the Roman fort Antonia, which is north of where the Temple complex was completely demolished.
The true location of the Temple was discovered in 1997 by Ernest L. Martin, supported by more recent archaeological discoveries reported on in Robert Cornuke’s “Temple.” It is now possible for a new Jewish Temple to be peacefully built without need for Islamic control of the so-called Temple Mount to be relinquished.
Mark, Great stuff! I so appreciate your diligence in the Scriptures as one with insight and understanding (Maskilim).. I like the new reading method and a solution of concurrent prophesy over the middle portions of Daniel 11, but need a bit of clarification.
You delineate v.30-35 as this middle portion that will have two exact fulfillments, but you later cite v.30 as pertaining to Antiochus alone and not the Antichrist. Should the proper breakdown actually be:
Daniel 11:1–30 was fulfilled in ancient times,
Daniel 11:(31)–35 was fulfilled in ancient times AND is to be fulfilled again in the end times,
Daniel 11:36–45 will be fulfilled in the end times.
I’m curious about this because it relegates the passage concerning “ships of Kittim” to an historical interpretation only. Or do you mean to include all parts of v.30 in the future fulfillment as well.
Keep sojourning in Christ and I look forward to your new book..
On a percentage basis, where Daniel Revisited was maybe one third history, this new book will be maybe one fifth history. This new book relies mostly on the Bible interpreting the Bible. And Appendix B is all history in order to confirm the findings of the Bible interpretation.
A lot of publishers discourage the use these days of parts a, b, etc in a verse. I remember as a child, references would say”3:23b” as an example. So the reason Daniel 11:30 seems to be overlapping is because it is. Daniel 11:30a is part of ancient fulfillment. Daniel 11:30b,c is both.
Thanks for the question.
What a great ‘mini’ read, and deeply looking forward to reading the book, although I will hold off judgement on the maskilim application until I have had a chance to read your book all the way through. Thanks for this.