A Different Way to Read Psalm 91, the Psalm of Protection

If any single Psalm might be said to be most applicable to the hard years ahead, it might very well be Psalm 91. It begins with a promise in the very first verse (in NIV 1984): “He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty.”

He (or she) who dwells in God’s shelter, will rest. What a wonderful promise! Psalm 91 is the psalm of protection.

Reading this Psalm a couple weeks ago, a chiastic structure within the Psalm popped out at me. It shouldn’t be too surprising, as there are chiastic (echoing) literary structures all through the Bible. My book Chronicles studies those of Daniel, Revelation, Zechariah, and three chapters of Matthew only, which just scratches the surface.

An illustration of the Psalm 91 chiasmus I found is shown below.

After identifying the echoing markers (marker texts are italicized in the illustration, and they are numbered), two major new things come to light.

The Central Message

The first is the central message of Psalm 91. The chiasmus of almost any chapter or passage in the Bible will yield the central thought the reader should keep in mind while reading the overall passage text.

The central message here in Psalm 91 (making up panel D in bold text) looks like verses 8-10:

“You will only observe with your eyes and see the punishment of the wicked. If you make the Most High your dwelling–even the LORD, who is my refuge–then no harm will befall you . . .”

God’s wonderful promise to those who take refuge in Him is you will only watch as no harm befalls you.

The Amazing “Opera”

The second item is a back-and-forth conversation, or speaking and echoing between the believer (the psalmist) and God. Panels A and Aʹ (read as A-prime) in the illustration each contain eight markers that echo one another, in a parallel manner. In a way, all eight markers can be read as one giant echoing marker because the entire text (without exception) of verses 1–3 is an echo of the complete text of verses 14–16. I just broke up the text into eight parts as to highlight the incredible corresponding parallel parts of the conversation contained in these verses.

The believer speaks in verses 1–3. God speaks in verses 14–16. This back-and-forth conversation, one could even call a short opera, is shown in the second illustration below, which is downloadable.

Let’s look at all eight of these incredible marker pairs.

Marker one is verse 1 echoing the first phrase of verse 14. Now, dwelling in the shelter of the Most High is the equivalent of dwelling on His holy hill as in Psalm 15. But to dwell on His holy hill you are obeying His commands as the rest of Psalm 15 tells us. Jesus tells us in John 14:21, “Whoever has my commands and obeys them, he is the one who loves me.” So God echoes, “He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High” as, “Because he loves me.” This is beautiful.

Marker two is the believer declaring he will say of the Lord, while in the echo, the Lord himself is quoted as saying, “says the Lord.”

Now this sets the stage for the remaining six marker sets.

In marker three, the believer says. “He is my refuge.” God echoes and clarifies this in verse 14 by saying, “I will rescue him.” A refuge rescues.

Marker four shows the believer saying of the Lord, “He is my fortress.” God echoes with, “I will protect him.” Indeed, a fortress protects.

Marker five continues with the very next words declared by the believer: “my God.” God responds with, “because he acknowledges my name.” This is amazing.

The very next words of the believer, continuing the thought in marker six, are “. . . in whom I trust.” What does a believer believe God will do for him if he trusts Him? God answers that in the echoing marker six: “He will call upon me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble.”

In marker seven, the believer continues: “Surely he will save you from the fowler’s snare.” God confirms this with, “I will deliver him and honour him.”

Lastly, in marker eight, the believer finishes with, “. . . and from the deadly pestilence.” A pestilence is disease-giving, and tends to shorten lives. But God responds at the end with, “With long life will I satisfy him and show him my salvation.”

Not only does God give a longer life in this world, but also in eternity for that is what salvation allows.


In Psalm 91, the first three verses wonderfully echo the last three verses, with God echoing the believer.

Though one may be able to see this without chiastics, chiastics again has enabled us to see something we may not have been able to discover on our own.

Yet again, the Bible’s author is shown to be God himself.

And though Psalm 91 has been wonderful to me so far, seeing this echo takes Psalm 91 to the next level of wonder.


Categories: Preparation, teaching

Tags: , ,

10 replies

  1. Hallelujah to the Lamb of God!

  2. Though I’ve read this psalm numerous times, you have shed new light on it. This is wonderful…..thank you Mark

  3. This is really great Mark…I can see my pre-trib friends saying, aha! lol.

  4. I thank the Lord He has allowed us to see this.

  5. Mark – there is plenty of hubbub about the nations signing onto the Abraham accord and postulations abound about the possibility of the Abraham accords being precursors to the Daniel 9 covenant. Considering how many nations are looking to sign up to the accord, it brings an interesting perspective as to how a furious Iran might respond…

  6. I am reading Joel Richardson’s excellent new book “Sinai to Zion.” While it has major eye-opening explanations, there are some blind spots. It fails to mention the signpost perspective and chiastics. It implies that Israel will do just fine until the reign of the Antichrist. Missing from its scriptural index is Isaiah 22, which, due to its mentioning Elam (now in Iran), may indicate that Israel may be partly invaded during the second signpost. Also missing are Isaiah 15-16 and Jeremiah 48 concerning Moab. An internal chiastic pattern links these together. Also missing is Ezekiel 25, portions of which may have a second signpost fulfillment, if “the men of the east” refers to Iran’s military.

    Ezekiel 25:4 KJV:
    Behold, therefore I will deliver thee [Ammon] to the men of the east for a possession, and they shall set their palaces in thee, and make their dwellings in thee: they shall eat thy fruit, and they shall drink thy milk.

    Ezekiel 25:8-11 KJV:
    Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because that Moab and Seir do say, Behold, the house of Judah is like unto all the heathen; therefore, behold, I will open the side of Moab from the cities, from his cities which are on his frontiers, the glory of the country, Bethjeshimoth, Baalmeon, and Kiriathaim, unto the men of the east with the Ammonites, and will give them in possession, that the Ammonites may not be remembered among the nations. And I will execute judgments upon Moab; and they shall know that I am the LORD.

    Elam, an area now in Iran, is east of Moab, an area now in Jordan.

    While I want to learn about the second coming of Christ, at my age I am more interested in the second signpost, which I may actually live through.

  7. The claim in “Chronicles of the End Times” that the Bible text is steeped with chiastic patterns prompted me to compare Isaiah’s and Jeremiah’s prophecies concerning Moab. I found an identical convergent chiasmus within them.

    Panel A of Isaiah 16:6 and Jeremiah 48:29-30 both mention the pride of Moab. Panel A’ of Isaiah 16:12 and Jeremiah 48:37-46 both describe the fall of that pride.

    Panel B of Isaiah 16:7 and Jeremiah 48:31 both mention Moab twice, both mentioning howling, and both refer to the same city. Isaiah called it Kir-hareseth. A century later, Jeremiah called it Kir-heres. Panel B’ of Isaiah 16:11 and Jeremiah 48:36 both mention gut-wrenching emotions and sounds of musical instruments.

    Panel C of Isaiah 16:8-10 and Jeremiah 48:32-35 both mention various places in Moab with Heshbon, Sibmah, Jazer, and Elealeh mentioned in both. Both mention failing agriculture with summer fruits and wine mentioned in both.

    The value of a chiasmus is in helping to interpret the meaning of the passage it spans. Isaiah 15-16 was written during an Assyrian ascendency. Jeremiah 48 was written about the time when Assyria was collapsing and Babylon was rising. By expanding upon Isaiah 15-16, Jeremiah 48 was indicating that it had not yet been fulfilled. So either both prophecies would be fulfilled under Babylonian rule or both have yet to be fulfilled. If fulfilled under Babylonian rule, where is the evidence for it? 2 Kings 24:2 chronicles that Moabites were among bands sent by God against Judah. Nowhere in Isaiah 15-16 or Jeremiah 48 was this prophesied of. Perhaps the Moab prophecies are for the near future. Kir-hareseth or Kir-heres is Karak, Jordan. It has a restaurant named Kir Heres.

  8. Concerning Joel Richardson’s “Sinai to Zion,” Isaiah 19:1 doesn’t fit in with the passages he cites supporting a Sinai to Zion path for Christ’s return at the end of the reign of Antichrist: “The oracle concerning Egypt. Behold, the LORD is riding on a swift cloud and is about to come to Egypt; the idols of Egypt will tremble at His presence, and the heart of the Egyptians will melt within them” (NASB). Richardson proposes that this may be fulfilled shortly prior to Christ’s return to Mount Sinai in Arabia. Richardson does not mention Jeremiah 49:38: “Then I will set My throne in Elam and destroy out of it king and princes, declares the LORD” (NASB). Elam is in Iran. Because Richardson is not considering the signpost perspective, he thinks that any future presence of Christ on Earth cannot happen until His return to reign at the end of the reign of Antichrist. The Isaiah 19:1 and Jeremiah 49:38 passages may indicate that at key points during the signposts, Christ may in some manner intervene to oversee prophesied events prior to His visible second coming. Isaiah 19:1 may or may not indicate that Christ will oversee an Iranian invasion of Egypt. Jeremiah 49:38 may or may not indicate that Christ will oversee the breaking of the two horns of the ram (Daniel 8:7), “king and princes” (Supreme Leader and IRGC). Could the signposts be so important in God’s plans that He will intervene at key transition points? “The end times are not something to be feared, but rather, should excite us. It is not about the Antichrist or the Tribulation. It is not about the Rapture. These things will happen. But we must keep our eyes on the big picture; the end times are the transition that must occur for Jesus Christ to take over Planet Earth and rule here physically” (Chronicles of the End Times, page 47).

  9. Prism,
    I disagree with this entire vector of interpretation. When the Bible says Egyptians’ hearts will melt, its because Egyptian soldiers will be there, as part of the AC’s forces, with everyone’s hearts melting per Isaiah 13.

  10. Isaiah 13:6-7 NASB:
    Wail, for the day of the LORD is near!
    It will come as destruction from the Almighty.
    Therefore all hands will fall limp,
    And every man’s heart will melt.

    I think “every man’s heart” pertains to those in the armies of Antichrist gathered against Christ’s return to Zion. Isaiah 19:1 states that the Lord will in some manner come to Egypt, not Zion, and that the heart of the Egyptians will thereby melt. Isaiah 19:4 NASB: “Moreover, I will deliver the Egyptians into the hand of a cruel master, and a mighty king will rule over them, declares the Lord GOD of hosts.” This might be fulfilled during an Iranian occupation, which could be what prompts civil war between those accepting Iranian rule and those opposing it. It would be cruel to reduce the flow of the Nile through Egypt (Isaiah 19:5-8). Upstream are several dams that could be used to reduce the flow of water through Egypt.

    Whatever miseries Egypt must endure will not altogether destroy its abilities to participate in the third signpost. The first signpost invasion of part of Iran by Iraq prompted Iran to begin rising to its second signpost role. A second signpost occupation of Egypt might prompt Egypt to begin rising to its third signpost role. Right now Egypt and Turkey are at odds with each other. After both are partly occupied by Iran, they could resolve, along with Albania and Syria, to end the Iranian nightmare.

    Daniel 11:42 states that “the land of Egypt will not escape” the control of Antichrist, who will no doubt be cruel. But the diminishing of water through the Nile may have already happened prior to Antichrist’s control of Egypt.

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